The Soviet Union launched the first satellite, Sputnik I in 1957 which triggered US President Dwight Eisenhower to create the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA agency) which is now known as Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). On February 7, 1958, Secretary of Defense Neil McElroy signed Department of Defense Directive 5105.15 ARPA. The creation of the agency marks an important moment in science history because it led to the creation of the internet which we recognize today.
The development of the ARPANET project, directed by Robert Taylor and managed by Lawrence Roberts.
Packet switching made data transmission possible in 1965, and by 1969, military contractor Bolt, Beranek, and Newman (BBN) developed an early form of routing devices known as interface message processors (IMPs), which revolutionized data transmission. The first message was sent over the ARPANET in 1969 from computer science Professor Leonard Kleinrock’s laboratory at University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) to the second network node at Stanford Research Institute (SRI).
The Stanford University Network was the first local area network connecting distant workstations. In 1981, the NSF expanded ARPANET to national computer science researchers when it funded the Computer Science Network (CSNET). BBN assumed CSNET operation management in 1984.
ARPANET adopted the transmission control protocol (TCP) in 1983 and separated out the military network (MILNET), assigning a subset for public research. Launched formally as the National Science Foundation Network (NSFNET) in 1985, engineers designed it to connect university computer science departments across the US.
In its earliest form, in 1986, the NSFNET created a three-tiered network architecture. The architecture connected campuses and research organizations to regional networks, which in turn connected to a main backbone linking six nationally funded super-computer centers. The original links were 56 Kbps.
In 1989, CERN in Switzerland by British computer scientist Tim Berners-Lee resulted in the World Wide Web, linking hypertext documents into an information system, accessible from any node on the network. This is why Berners-Lee is known as father of the world wide web (www).
Now, Internet has had a revolutionary impact on culture, commerce, and technology, including the rise of near-instant communication by electronic mail, instant messaging, voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) telephone calls, two-way interactive video calls, and the World Wide Web with its discussion forums, blogs, social networking, and online shopping sites.
The research is still on and you also know that evolving is not yet done!
Written By: Alka Prasad